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開普勒發現迄今最小“宜居帶”行星  

2013-05-27 23:59:39|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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開普勒發現迄今最小“宜居帶”行星 - luckpanaiguo - luckpanaiguo的博客
Kepler Discovers Smallest ‘Habitable Zone’ Planets to Date
開普勒發現迄今最小“宜居帶”行星

NASA’s Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the “habitable zone,” the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature of an orbiting planet might be suitable for liquid water.

美國國家航空航天局(NASA)開普勒任務已在“宜居帶”中發現兩個新的包含三顆超級地球大小的行星系統,在這一距離恆星的“宜居帶”上,繞行行星的表面溫度可能適合液態水的存在。

 The Kepler-62 system has five planets; 62b, 62c, 62d, 62e and 62f. The Kepler-69 system has two planets; 69b and 69c. Kepler-62e, 62f and 69c are the super-Earth-sized planets.

開普勒-62系統有五顆行星,分別是62b, 62c, 62d, 62e 和 62f。而開普勒-69系統有兩顆行星,即69b 和 69c。(其中,)Kepler-62e, 62f 和 69c是超級地球大小的行星。

Two of the newly discovered planets orbit a star smaller and cooler than the sun. Kepler-62f is only 40 percent larger than Earth, making it the exoplanet closest to the size of our planet known in the habitable zone of another star. Kepler-62f is likely to have a rocky composition. Kepler-62e, orbits on the inner edge of the habitable zone and is roughly 60 percent larger than Earth.

兩顆最新發現的行星圍繞一顆較太陽又小又冷的恆星運行。開普勒-62f祇比地球大40%,是已知外恆星宜居帶中大小最接近地球的外星行星。該行星很有可能有岩石成分。開普勒-62e繞著宜居帶的内邊緣運行,大約比地球大60%。

The third planet, Kepler-69c, is 70 percent larger than the size of Earth, and orbits in the habitable zone of a star similar to our sun. Astronomers are uncertain about the composition of Kepler-69c, but its orbit of 242 days around a sun-like star resembles that of our neighboring planet Venus.

第三顆行星,即開普勒-69c,比地球大70%,繞行在一顆類日恆星的宜居帶中。天文學家不確定開普勒-69c的成分,但是其圍繞類日恆星的軌道周期為242天,類似于我們的鄰居--金星。

Scientists do not know whether life could exist on the newfound planets, but their discovery signals we are another step closer to finding a world similar to Earth around a star like our sun.

科學家尚不知在新發現的行星上是否存在生命,但是他們的發現標誌著,我們距離找到與圍繞太陽運行的地球相似的世界更近了一步。

“The Kepler spacecraft has certainly turned out to be a rock star of science,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “The discovery of these rocky planets in the habitable zone brings us a bit closer to finding a place like home. It is only a matter of time before we know if the galaxy is home to a multitude of planets like Earth, or if we are a rarity.”

“開普勒飛船(望遠鏡)竟然成爲科學的搖滾明星”,華盛頓NASA總部的科學任務理事會副行政官約翰--格倫斯菲爾德說,“宜居帶中這些岩石行星的發現使我們距離找到類似地球家園的世界更近一步。瞭解星系是否有著衆多類似地球的行星或我們是否是稀有物種,僅僅是時間問題。”

The Kepler space telescope, which simultaneously and continuously measures the brightness of more than 150,000 stars, is NASA’s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets around stars like our sun.

開普勒空間望遠鏡,是NASA第一項能夠探測繞類日恆星運行的類地行星任務,可同時持續量測超過150000顆恆星的亮度。

Orbiting its star every 122 days, Kepler-62e was the first of these habitable zone planets identified. Kepler-62f, with an orbital period of 267 days, was later found by Eric Agol, associate professor of astronomy at the University of Washington and co-author of a paper on the discoveries published in the journal Science.

開普勒-62e是這些宜居帶中最先確認的行星,每122天繞其恆星一週。開普勒-62f,軌道周期267天,隨後由華盛頓大學的天文係副教授埃利克--阿古發現,該副教授還是在科學雜誌上發表(科學)發現論文的合著者。

The size of Kepler-62f is now measured, but its mass and composition are not. However, based on previous studies of rocky exoplanets similar in size, scientists are able to estimate its mass by association.

開普勒-62f大小現已量測,但其質量和成分未知。然而,基於先前對相似大小岩石類外星行星的研究,科學家可聯想估計其質量。

“The detection and confirmation of planets is an enormously collaborative effort of talent and resources, and requires expertise from across the scientific community to produce these tremendous results,” said William Borucki, Kepler science principal investigator at NASA’s Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., and lead author of the Kepler-62 system paper in Science. “Kepler has brought a resurgence of astronomical discoveries and we are making excellent progress toward determining if planets like ours are the exception or the rule.”

“行星的探測和確認需要人才和資源的通力合作,並且需要科學界的專門知識才能產生衆多成果,”威廉--佈魯其說,“開普勒復興了天文發現,我們正在確定我們地球是否是特例的過程中才取得可喜的進步威廉--佈魯其是加州墨菲特場NASA阿彌斯研究中心的開普勒科學主要研究員,還是科學雜誌上開普勒-62系統論文的第一作者。

The two habitable zone worlds orbiting Kepler-62 have three companions in orbits closer to their star, two larger than the size of Earth and one about the size of Mars. Kepler-62b, Kepler-62c and Kepler-62d, orbit every five, 12, and 18 days, respectively, making them very hot and inhospitable for life as we know it.

 圍繞開普勒-62的兩個宜居帶世界中有三顆軌道距離其恆星更近的伴星,其中兩個地球大小,另外一個火星大小。開普勒-62b、開普勒-62c及開普勒-62d軌道週期分別為5天、12天和18天,造成過熱且不適合人類已知生命形式的存在。

The five planets of the Kepler-62 system orbit a star classified as a K2 dwarf, measuring just two-thirds the size of the sun and only one-fifth as bright. At seven billion years old, the star is somewhat older than the sun. It is about 1,200 light-years from Earth in the constellation Lyra.

A companion to Kepler 69c, known as Kepler 69b, is more than twice the size of Earth and whizzes around its star every 13 days. The Kepler-69 planets’ host star belongs to the same class as our sun, called G-type. It is 93 percent the size of the sun and 80 percent as luminous and is located approximately 2,700 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus.

“We only know of one star that hosts a planet with life, the sun. Finding a planet in the habitable zone around a star like our sun is a significant milestone toward finding truly Earth-like planets,” said Thomas Barclay, Kepler scientist at the Bay Area Environmental Research Institute in Sonoma, Calif., and lead author of the Kepler-69 system discovery published in the Astrophysical Journal.

When a planet candidate transits, or passes in front of the star from the spacecraft’s vantage point, a percentage of light from the star is blocked. The resulting dip in the brightness of the starlight reveals the transiting planet’s size relative to its star. Using the transit method, Kepler has detected 2,740 candidates. Using various analysis techniques, ground telescopes and other space assets, 122 planets have been confirmed.

Early in the mission, the Kepler telescope primarily found large, gaseous giants in very close orbits of their stars. Known as “hot Jupiters,” these are easier to detect due to their size and very short orbital periods. Earth would take three years to accomplish the three transits required to be accepted as a planet candidate. As Kepler continues to observe, transit signals of habitable zone planets the size of Earth orbiting stars like the sun will begin to emerge.

Ames is responsible for Kepler’s ground system development, mission operations, and science data analysis. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., managed Kepler mission development.

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. in Boulder, Colo., developed the Kepler flight system and supports mission operations with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder.

The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore archives, hosts and distributes Kepler science data. Kepler is NASA’s 10th Discovery Mission and was funded by the agency’s Science Mission Directorate.

For more information about the Kepler mission, visit:http://www.nasa.gov/kepler

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